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淡水龙虾的人工育苗及其养殖技术

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淡水龙虾的人工育苗及其养殖技术

发布日期:2018-12-25 作者: 点击:

      小龙虾幼苗

     

  YI、XIAMIAOPEIYU


  小龙虾苗在孵化后11天内个体发生变态,成活率为50%,底栖生活后群体饲养的成活率为70%,用贻贝投喂到3龄,成品虾4龄开始产卵,5龄雌虾有60%个体抱卵。


山西11选5走势图  LONGXIAJIAOWEIXINGWEIYIBANSHIZAIGANGTUIQIAODECIXIAYUWEITUIQIAODEXIONGXIAZHIJIANJINXING。JIEJINTUIQIAOQIDEGETITOUXIONGJIAXIAYUANTISEBIANAN,QIANYANXIONGJIEHEFUJIEDEBEICEJIEHECHUDEJIEJIANMOCHENGPENGRUNZHUANGTAI,GENJUZHEIXIEWAIBIAOTEZHENG,KEYIPANDUANLONGXIAJIJIANGFASHENGTUIQIAO,TUIQIAOKAISHISHI,TOUXIONGBUJIAQIAOYUWEIBUJIAOJIECHULIEHEN,TOUXIONGBUXIANCONGZHONGTUOCHU,GENZHEWEIBUYITIAO,JIUQIAOTUOLUO,CONGTUIQIAOKAISHIDAOJIESHUDAYUE27FENZHONG,RUOTUIQIAOSHOUGANRAOSHI,KEZANSHIZHONGZHI,GUOHOUZAIJIXU,QIESHUNLIWANCHENGTUIQIAOGUOCHENG,BUFENHUOQUANBUFUZHIJIWEISHANDUANDIAODELONGXIAKETONGGUOTUIQIAOQUANBUHUIFUBINGQIEGETITONGYANGZENGZHANG。


  GANGTUIQIAODECIXIA,SHENTICHUYUTANRUANZHUANGTAI,KAISHIZENGJIATIZHONGYUEXUSHUXIAOSHI,CISHIFANGRUXIONGXIAJIUKEFASHENGJIAOWEIXINGWEI,JIAOWEISHIJIANWEI15—60FENZHONG,CIXIATUIQIAOHOU,JIAQIAOZHUJIANYINGHUA,JIAQIAOYINGHUASHIJIAOWEIFASHENGKUNNAN。


  1.龙虾幼苗的孵化:龙虾幼苗的孵化一般在5、6月开始,卵粒受精后由棕黑色变棕色,至孵化前卵粒又变成透明红色,不透明者为死卵。一个个体的孵化需10—20天,但是孵化高峰期只有数日,孵化的时间是从太阳刚落山开始到半夜为止。刚孵化的幼体浮游于表层,随着水流集中于排水口的网槽中,第2天早晨用网捕获浮游表层的幼体。

山西11选5走势图  CILONGXIAZAIJIAOWEIHOU20XIAOSHINEIPAILUAN,CHANLUANYICIYUEXU30FENZHONG,PAICHULUANLIJINFUZAILUANGANGMAOSHANG,RANHOUJING3ZHOUHOUFUCHU,WEISHOUJINGLUAN3TIANNEI,CONGCILONGXIAFUNEIZIXINGTUOLUO。TONGCHANGCHANLUANSHUIWENZAI28℃ZUOYOUWEIJIA。WENDUGAO,LUANYIBIANZHI,WENDUDISHI,FUHUASHIJIANZHANG,BIANXINGLUANYEDUO,YINCISHUIWENKONGZHIHENZHONGYAO。

  JUGUANCHA,TOUXIONGJIAZHANG72mmHE157mmDEQINXIAGETIDEBAOLUANSHUFENBIEWEI5240LIHE48850LI,RUGUOBAOLUANSHIPEIYUTIAOJIANBUSHIYI,SILUANHUIZENGJIAHUOFASHENGLUANTITUOLUO,SHOUYUNDELONGXIASHOUDAOJINGHESHILUANTIYITUOLUO,FUHUASHULIANGXIANZHUJIANSHAO,TIZHONGYUE1.5GONGJINDEBAOLUANGETI,ZAIRIBENSIYANG2GEYUE,JIEGUOFUHUAYOUTIWEISHUWEI1678—1137WEIPINGJUNYINGWEI7005WEI。


山西11选5走势图  2.FUYOUQIYOUTI:CHUFUHUADELONGXIAMIAOSHIHONGSEYOUCHONG,RANHOUBIANCHENGSHUISETOUMING,BIANPINGYEZHUANGTI,ZAIHAISHUIZHONGZHIJIANYIDUIHEISEYANJING,RUBUZHUYIKANSHI,WUFAKANCHUSHISHENMESHENGWU,CHUYANJINGZHIWAIHAIYOUXUDUOTUCHUGANGMAO,GUGESHIRUANDE,MEIYOUSHIHUIZHI,XUJINGTUIBIAN3CIYUE6GEYUECAINENGBIANCHENGXINGSICHENGTIDEXIAMIAO。

  FUHUADEDIⅠQIYOUTI,ZAISHUIWENYUEWEI20℃DESHUIZHONGSIYANG,BINGCHONGFENTOUWEILUCHONGERLIAO,ZAI2TIANNEIFAYUDAODIⅡQIYOUTI,CIHOU3TIANHOUFAYUDAODIⅢQIYOUTI,ZAIJING4—5TIANFAYUDAODIⅣQIYOUTI,ZHIDAOBIANTAI,YEJIUSHISHUO,FUHUAHOUBIANTAIQIANDEFUYOUSHENGHUOQIZUIDUANWEI9—10TIAN。

  LUANJING20TIANHOUFUCHUYOUMIAO,FUCHUHOUYITIANYANSEBIANDAN,22TIANTISETOUMINGCHENGSHUISE,DAISHAOXUSESU,CHUJIAOBIANZHANG,TUIQIAO,TONGSHIDIYIDUIWEISHANZHIWAICEJUNZHANGMANGANGMAO。CONGCIKAISHISHESHI,SHOUXIANSHILUNCHONG,SHIWUGUOBAOHUOMEIYOUSHESHIDOUHUISIWANG。CHUSHIWUZHIWAI,HAIYAOTIANJIAWEISHENGSU,YOUTICAINENGZHANGQISHENGCUN。

  

  3.浮游期幼体和水流:一般情况下,暴气是饲养甲壳类幼体的一项极为有效的措施,但暴气不能太强,如果采用强暴气措施,幼体头胸甲与鳃之间出现气泡,导致幼体浮头死亡。随着小龙虾苗种山西11选5走势图发育的进展,幼体下沉水池后,只要不产生从底部向上强烈的水流,龙虾一般难于再浮游到海水表面。暴气如果太强,幼体体表和鳃容易被水池底部的有机物覆盖,影响幼体活动和呼吸,引起体质衰弱。


  4.FUYOUQIYOUTIDEERLIAO:LONGXIAYOUTIBUSHIDONGWUXINGDEFUYOUSHENGWU,LUCHONGWUJIEYOUCHONGSHIDIⅠQIYOUTIDESHIYIERLIAO。DIⅡQIYIHOUERLIAOXUYAOLIANGGENGDA,KEJIANGHAISHUIPEIYANGDEXIAOQIUZAOHUOZHEHAIYANGJIAOMUTOUWEILUCHONGWUJIEYOUCHONG,SIYANG10—14TIANYIHOUZUOWEILONGXIAYOUTIERLIAO。SUIRANYUHEBEILEIDEROUPIANDENGFEIHUOXINGERLIAOYEKESHIYONG,DANYOUYUWUFUYOUXING,QIERLIAOJIAZHIJIAOCHA,TOUWEIGEZHONGSILIAODEJIEGUORUBIAO1SUOSHI,TOUWEIHUOLUCHONGHELENGDONGLUCHONGSILIAODECHENGHUOLVYOUHENDACHAYI,YAOSHICHENGHUOLVDADAO50%,ZHINENGYIHUOLUCHONGWEIERLIAO。

  YIBANRENWEIXIAMIAOBUZHIJIEXUYAOZHIWUXINGFUYOUSHENGWU,DANSHIZAIFANZHIDANXIBAOLVZAOLEIDESHUICHIZHONG,LONGXIAMIAOCHENGHUOLVYOUTIGAOQINGXIANG,KENENGSHILVZAOLEIDEFANZHIDUIWENDINGSHUIZHIDAILAIJIAOHAODEYINGXIANG,YINCIBUNENGHUSHIDANXIBAOZAOLEIDEXIAOGUO,ZAISHIWAIDETIAOJIANXIA,GUIZAOLEIJIFUYOUDONGWUDEFANZHISHIYOUTICHENGHUOLVBUZHIYUXIAJIANGDEZHUYAOYUANYIN。


  5.BIANTAIHOUDEYOUTI:DIⅣQIYOUTIDEXINGTAIWEICHENGTIXING,ZAISHENGTAISHANGCHUYUCONGFUYOUSHENGHUOXIANGDIQISHENGHUODEGUODUQI。LONGXIAYOUTIBIANTAIHOUDAYUE2TIAN,KAISHIZAIDIZHIPUFANGDESHAZIHESHILILINJIECHUWAJUECHAOXUE,MEIGEXIAOSHIZIXIAQIANFUSHUWEIGETI。DIⅣQIDESHIJIANDAYUEWEI12TIAN,FAYUDAODIⅤQI,YOUTIZAIMEIGECHAOXUEZHONGZHIQIANFUYIWEIGETI,CHULEJIDUANSHIJIANBUHUOERLIAOWAI,YIBANBULIKAICHAOXUE。

  在自然界生长的幼体,只捕食端足类,多毛类等小动物,由于龙虾种苗具有潜伏习性,能逃脱天敌的捕食。但是,这种习性并不是生理上的必需条件,在龙虾不能挖掘巢穴的底质,用笼子也能饲养。在底部铺设牡蛎壳的混凝土水池放养第Ⅳ期幼体,成活率大约为80%。龙虾苗种通常是以变态后第Ⅳ期幼体作为苗种放养,但第Ⅳ期幼体不能完全进入底栖生活,这是导致放养后死亡的原因。

山西11选5走势图  LONGXIAYIBANZAIFUHUAHOU10—14TIANFAYUCHENGDIⅣCHANQIYOUTI,CHUXIANDIⅣQIYOUTIDEGAOFENGQISHIZAIFUHUAHOUDE11—13TIAN,LONGXIAFUYOUYOUTISHIBUSHIYUNDONGXINGDEERLIAO,CONGSHENGWUXUEJIAODUCHUFA,YONGWALIPUSHEDIZHIDUISIYANGLONGXIASHIYOUXIAODE。


  ER、DANSHUIXIAOLONGXIADEYANGCHENGJISHU


  大自然中的龙虾主要是栖息在沙泥质的海底,每穴潜伏一尾,但在交尾期,雌雄配对潜伏,有时也潜伏于岩石的空隙中,而日本龙虾是属群栖生活。淡水龙虾山西11选5走势图在饲养期间必须进行投饵,要考虑各种附着生物是否可作为饵料加以利用,为此日本曾进行海中垂下养殖试验。


  1.SHUIWEN:LONGXIAQIXIYUJIAODISHUIWEN,DONGJIZUIDIDESHUIWENYUEWEI5℃—6℃KEYISHIHELONGXIAYANGZHI,RUGUOSHUIWENJIAODI,CHENGSHUQIHUIYANZHANGZHI5—7NIAN。LONGXIANAIGAOWENXINGQUEJIAOCHA,ZAISHIYANZHONGJIANGSHUIWENSHANGSHENGDAO25℃,CHIXU2ZHOUMEIYOUCHUXIANTEBIEYICHANGXIANXIANG,GENJUSHIYAN,SHIYICHENGZHANGDEWENDUWEI20℃—23℃,LONGXIAZAISHUIWEN20℃—22℃SHUIZHONGSHENGZHANGZUIKUAI,SUOYIZAISHUIWENXIAJIANGDEDONGJI,LIYONGWENPAISHUISIYANGSHICUJINSHENGZHANGDEFANGFAZHIYI。


  2.YANDU:LONGXIADESHIYANFANWEIWEI26.90‰—34.40‰,ZAIDIYANDU23.50‰DEHAISHUIZHONGYENENGSHENGHUOBINGBIANTAI。


  3.DIZHI:LONGXIABIANTAIHOUDEYOUTIWEILETAOBITIANDIDEBUSHI,ZHUANRUDIQISHENGHUO,DIZHIDESHALIZUOWEIQIANFUHESUOERDECHANGSUOJIWEIZHONGYAO。BIANTAI3—4TIANHOULONGXIANENGZAILIJINGWEI0.4—1.0mmDESHALIZHONGJUEXUEQIANFU。BIANTAI8TIANHOU,NENGZAILIJINGWEI2.0—3.0mmDESHALIZHONGQIANFU。


  4.SHENGZHANGLV:DUI1LINGQIANDELONGXIAQUNTI,ZHIXUYONGMULIQIAOPUCHIDI,BUBITOUFANGRENGONGBITICHAOXUE,TOUWEIZIYIBEIZUOWEIERLIAOJINXINGWEIYANG。CONG2LINGKAISHI,TOUFANGSILVYIXIGUANZUOWEIBITICHAOXUE,QITOUFANGGESHUSHILONGXIAMIAOSIYANGSHULIANGDE2BEI。ZAIYANGZHIMAN2NIANDEQUNTIZHONG,CHUXIANZUIDATIZHONGWEI300KEZUOYOUDEGETI,LONGXIAMEICITUIQIAODAYUEZENGZHONG50%,LONGXIAGETIZAIYILINGCHUTUIQIAO,XINGCHENGSHUSHIDETIZHONGKEDADAO450KE,ZAI3LINGQUNTINEI,YOU16%DADAOXINGCHENGSHU。

  LONGXIASHENGZHANGYUERLIAO、HUANJING、SHUIZHIJITUIQIAODECISHUYOUGUAN,CENGSHIYANGEZHONGERLIAOJIYONGDIANCIJITUIQIAO,JIEGUOYIXINXIANXIAROUWEIYANGCHENGZHANGGENGKUAI,BISHIYONGYUROUSIYANGSHENGZHANGSUDUKUAI1BEI,ZAISHENGZHANGGUOCHENGZHONGTONGCHANGYINIANTUIQIAO2CIYISHANG,YONGHUAXUEYAOWUHUODIANCIJISHIKETUIQIAO4CI,SHENGZHANGLVZENGJIA1BEI。LONGXIATUIQIAOHOU,JING2ZHOUXINQIAOYINGHUA,LONGXIAHUIZAIDUHUOYUEQILAI,CISHISHILIANGDAZENG,SIYANGSHIXUZENGJIA30%DESILIAOLIANG。


山西11选5走势图  5.CHENGHUOLV:YIDIQISHENGHUODEDIⅣQIYOUTIWEIJICHU,BUDAO1LINGDEQUNTICHENGHUOLVLVEDIYU60%,DAN1—3LINGQUNTICHENGHUOLVCHAOGUO80%,QUNTISIYANGDECHENGHUOLVDADAO80%SHIBIJIAOHAODESIYANGCHENGGUO。

山西11选5走势图  GUANCHAZAISHUICHIZHONGXIANGHUZAOYUDELONGXIACHANGTIQIAOZU,XIANGHUJINXINGWEIHE,DANWEIJIANYIAOZUJINXINGGEDOUCANSHADAOZHILONGXIASIWANGDEXIANXIANG,YINCI,RENWEI0—1LINGDELONGXIAYIQUNTISIYANG,2LINGYIHOUGETIGELISIYANGDEXIAOYIJIAOGAO。


  6.ERLIAO:DIⅣQIYIHOUDELONGXIAZHUANMENTOUWEIZIYIBEI,KEYICUJINLONGXIAXUNSUCHENGSHUHEFANZHI,ZIYIBEINENGMANZULONGXIAYOUMIAODUIYINGYANGFANGMIANDEXUQIU。LONGXIASHIXINGZA,KETOUWEILENGDONGXIAOZAYU、XIAOBEILEIHEDUIXIARENGONGERLIAO,RITOUER1CI,TOUERSHIJIANYIXIAWUWEIHAO,LIANTOU2TIANTING1TIAN,RITOUERLIANGWEIXIAZHONGDE5—12%。JINGCHANGZHUYILONGXIADEHUODONG,SHESHIQINGKUANG,MEINIANQINGCHI1CI,YIFANGWURAN。SHIYANBIAOMING,TOUWEIRIBENDUIXIAYONGDEPEIHEERLIAOJINXINGTOUWEISHIYAN,LONGXIADESHENGZHANGHECHENGHUOLVDOUBITOUWEIZIYIBEIBIAOXIANCHUXIANGENGHAOSIYANGXIAOGUO。DUILONGXIALAISHUO,SILIAOZHONGZUISHIDANBAIZHIHANLIANGWEI20—25%,QIWANGJINHOUNENGYANZHICHUYIZHONGSHIHELONGXIAYONGDEPEIHEERLIAO,CIWAI,LONGXIAYONGDI3EZUBUSHIKELIERLIAO,YINCILONGXIAGETIDAXIAOYUKELIDAXIAOWUZHIJIEGUANXI,YIBANKEYONGZHIJINGXIAODEKELISILIAO。


山西11选5走势图  7.PEIYUZAJIAOPINZHONG:RIBENKAIZHANSHENGWUJISHUPEIYULONGXIAYANJIU。YU1980NIANPEIYUCHUCHUDAIZAJIAOZHONG,1988NIANPEIYUCHUZAJIAOZHONGDIERDAI。TAMENJIANGMEIGUOLONGXIAZUOWEIXIONGTI,OUZHOULONGXIAZUOWEICITI,ZHIYAOJIANGTAMENFANGZAIYIQI,JIUHUIFASHENGJIAOWEI,ZHEIDIANYUAOXIAXIANGTONG。YUNYUXIALUANHOU,YOUTIFUHUAYIBANZAI5、6YUEFENKAISHI,DIERDAIZAJIAOZHONGFAYUSHUNLI。TIANRANDELONGXIAFUHUAHOUYUE2ZHOUZUOYOUFUYOUYUHAISHUIBIAOMIAN,YIZHAOGUOQUDEYANJIU,ZAJIAOZHONGZHISHAOYAOBIQINZHONGDA1BEI,ZHEIZHONGJISHURUGUONENGPUJI,JINGSHUDAIHOU,RENMENJIUNENGDETEDAGETIDELONGXIA


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关键词:龙虾幼苗,淡水龙虾,小龙虾种苗

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